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Hormonal contraceptives and hair dyes increase breast cancer risk

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In her recent doctoral dissertation, researcher Sanna Heikkinen from the University of Helsinki and Finnish Cancer Registry evaluates the contribution of the use of hormonal contraceptives and hair dyes to the spectrum of breast cancer risk factors. The analysis included self-reported survey data from 8000 breast cancer patients and 20 000 controls from Finland. According to the results, use of hormonal intrauterine device was associated with 52% increased risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women, when compared to women who had used copper intrauterine device.

 

Energia: un protocollo green per l'efficienza e la sostenibilità ambientale nel cinema

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I risultati dello studio ENEA-Green Cross Italia sulla filiera dell’industria cinematografica

Cinema in Classe AL’intera industria cinematografica mondiale è responsabile del 2 per cento delle emissioni globali di CO2. È quanto emerge dal convegno #CinemaInClasseA, organizzato a Roma da ENEA e Green Cross Italia, che ha analizzato i consumi e le possibilità di risparmio del settore in Italia. “Abbiamo calcolato che i consumi di energia e le relative emissioni si potrebbero ridurre di circa il 20 per cento, se tutte le produzioni cinematografiche adottassero protocolli di sostenibilità per la realizzazione dei propri film”, ha sottolineato Antonio Disi dell’ENEA, coordinatore della Campagna nazionale per l’efficienza energetica Italia in classe A, promossa dal Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico e realizzata dall’ENEA.

 

Measurements by school pupils paved way for key research findings

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With their measurements and samples, nearly 3,500 schoolchildren have assisted a research study on lakes and global warming, now published in the journal Scientific Reports. The results show that water temperatures generally remain low despite the air becoming warmer. This helps to curb the emission of greenhouse gases. How often is water warmer than air? Gesa Weyhenmeyer, Professor of Aquatic Biogeochemistry at Uppsala University, asked herself this question when she analysed thousands of measurements. They were taken in late summer and autumn 2016 by compulsory school pupils at senior level (years 7–9) from 66 schools in Sweden.

 

A new research points out that climate change will increase fire activity in Mediterranean Europe

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In the forthcoming decades, risks of summer fire may increase in Mediterranean Europe. A recent study published in Scientific Reports, led by researchers of the University of Barcelona in collaboration with several other research institutions, shows that the direct effect of climate change in regulating fuel moisture (droughts leading to larger fires) is expected to be dominant, regarding the indirect effect of antecedent climate on fuel load and structure -that is, warmer/drier conditions that determine fuel availability. The researchers drew this conclusion after analyzing a set of empirical models linking the summer Burned Area to the climatic indicators. These models are also promising for developing a seasonal forecast system supporting fire management strategies.

 

Women suffer from asthma symptoms more frequently and more severely than men

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Women suffer from asthma symptoms more frequently and more severely than men

 

Women suffer more frequently and more severely from pollen and food allergies and therefore also from asthma. Firstly, female sex hormones increase the risk and symptoms of asthma and allergies and, secondly, hormone preparations such as the contraceptive pill play a role. These factors should be given more consideration than was previously the case. Erika Jensen-Jarolim from MedUni Vienna's Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research stresses this point on the occasion of International Women's Day on 8 March.

 

IU study finds caffeine boosts enzyme that could protect against dementia

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New analysis reveals 24 compounds that can help reduce impact of harmful proteins in the brain

 

A study by Indiana University researchers has identified 24 compounds -- including caffeine -- with the potential to boost an enzyme in the brain shown to protect against dementia. The protective effect of the enzyme, called NMNAT2, was discovered last year through research conducted at IU Bloomington. The new study appears today in the journal Scientific Reports. "This work could help advance efforts to develop drugs that increase levels of this enzyme in the brain, creating a chemical 'blockade' against the debilitating effects of neurodegenerative disorders," said Hui-Chen Lu, who led the study. Lu is a Gill Professor in the Linda and Jack Gill Center for Biomolecular Science and the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, a part of the IU Bloomington College of Arts and Sciences.

 

Future climate change will affect plants and soil differently

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A new European study has found that soil carbon loss is more sensitive to climate change compared to carbon taken up by plants. In drier regions, soil carbon loss decreased but in wetter regions soil carbon loss increased. This could result in a positive feedback to the atmosphere leading to an additional increase of atmospheric CO2 levels. Scientists analysed data from seven climate change experiments across Europe to show how European shrubland plant biomass and soil carbon loss is affected by summer drought and year-around warming. The research was led by Dr Sabine Reinsch and Professor Bridget Emmett from the UK-based Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) in collaboration with European and US climate scientists and published in the Nature journal Scientific Reports.

 

Doctors begin new clinical trial treating cancer with 70p malaria drug

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Courtesy of St George's University of London


Experts from St George’s University of London, and St George’s Hospital have joined forces to investigate whether a common and cheap malaria drug can be used also against cancer. The researchers and clinicians raised more than £50,000 through a crowd funding campaign to fund the second part of their trial into whether the drug artesunate can tackle colorectal cancer and now are recruiting patients to take part in their clinical studies. In all £54,247 was raised through crowd funding to investigate whether the drug can help cancer patients by reducing the multiplication of tumour cells and decreasing the risk of cancer spreading or recurring after surgery.

 

Progress Towards a Circuit Diagram of the Brain

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Heidelberg researchers develop a new algorithm for analysing image data

 

Precise knowledge of the connections in the brain – the links between all the nerve cells – is a prerequisite for better understanding this most complex of organs. Researchers from Heidelberg University have now developed a new algorithm – a computational procedure – that can extract this connectivity pattern with far greater precision than previously possible from microscopic images of the brain. Prof. Dr Fred Hamprecht, head of the "Image Analysis and Learning" working group at the Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, expects such automated image data analysis to bring about great strides in the neurosciences. It will likely lead to a circuit diagram of the brain.

 

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telematica quotidiana 229/2006 del 08/06/2006
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